A beautiful smile makes an important part of your self esteem. Clean teeth and fresh breath are important assets for your personal life. A gum disease, mouth odour and swoolen gums can destroy self esteem.   Gum disease is also known as Periodontal Disease.It is an infection of tissues and bone that supports the teeth.Periodontal disease or gum disease includes gingivitis and periodontitis(advanced gum disease). If not treated it becomes very serious, causing teeth to become loose and fall out. .It can affect one tooth or many teeth.

               Gum Disease Periodontal Disease 

Gum disease is caused by plaque.Plaque is an invisible sticky layer of germs that forms naturally on teeth and gums. .Plaque contains germs or bacteria which produces toxins that irritates and damages the gums.

Causes of Gum Disease

Smoking: people who smoke cigarette and chew tobacco are at a greater risk of developing gum disease.

Genetics: Researchers  prove that 30% of the population may be genetically susceptible to gum disease.

Pregnancy and puberty: During this particular time body experiences hormonal changes.there is increase in female sex hormones,these changes can affect many of the tissues in the body including the gums and they become more sensitive to irritation. .At times they react strongly to hormonal fluctuations.

Clenching or grinding of teeth: It can put excess force on the supporting tissues of teeth and could speed up the rate at which the periodontal tissues are destroyed.

Diabetic: Diabetic people have higher risk of developing infections including periodontal disease..These infections impair the ability to process and utilize insulin.

Poor nutrition: Body's immmune system is compromised if the diet is low in important nutrients.It makes harder for the body to fight off infections.

Braces: In people having braces, fending off plaque can be tougher due to inability to brush properly.

Systemic diseases: like down syndrome and AIDS also contribute to gum disease. 

Signs of Gum Disease

1.   Bleeding of gums
2.   Redness of gums(swollen or tender).
3.   Signs of gums pulling away from teeth.
4.   Bad breath(halitosis).
5.   Loose teeth or shifting teeth.

How the Disease Progresses?

As the gum disease includes gingivitis, bleeding gums are usually are a sign of gingivitis. Other warning signs of gingivitis are gum tenderness, redness or puffiness.

   Early Periodontis
          Early periodontis          
 
 Gingivitis - Inflamed Gums
                       Gingivitis( Inflamed Gums)                    

 If a person does not practices good daily dental care, the plaque from the teeth and gums is not removed, over time it hardens into a crust called calculus or tarter.

Once the calculus forms, it starts to destroy gum tissues causing gums to bleed. The gums pull away from teeth.This is known as periodontitis(a more advance form of gum disease).

Advanced periodontitis - Advance Gum Disease
Advanced periodontitis(advanced gum disease)

Once periodontitis occurs, the gums become weakened and form pockets around the lease of teeth. Bacteria or germs pool in these pockets and cause further destruction of the gums.

As periodontitis spreads, it damages the deeper gum tissues and eventually spread to the areas of jaw bone that support the teeth. This can cause teeth to become loose and fall out.

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