“Prevalence of eruption cyst has not been thoroughly studied. Extensive review of literature revealed low prevalence of these cysts.”
Blue bubble on the gum, clinically referred to as “Eruption Cyst or eruption hematoma” is the swelling around the gums. This swelling is due to the eruption of the emerging tooth. This swelling turns the gum bluish purple and hence is called blue/purple bubble on the gum. This is a common developmental condition and there is nothing to worry for the parents as the phenomena is usually painless.
1.1 How the Eruption Cyst Develop
When the tooth formation has started (probably 6 to 8 months), teeth pierces the jaw bone and places them beneath the gums before making a final entry to the oral cavity. Now due to the accumulation of fluid or blood around the erupting tooth, it turns bluish purple or may be reddish brown (depending upon the amount of blood accumulated) in color hence giving this appearance.
Eruption cyst can develop as a result of trauma from chewing
It can be due to certain medications like cyclosporin. According to Neville, “collagen deposition in the gingival connective tissue that resulted in thicker, less penetrable, peri coronal roof.” So, more thicker the gums around the erupting tooth, more are the chances of developing an eruption cyst.
Eruption cysts are more prevalent in upper jaw with tooth prevalence of temporary incisors, molars and permanent molars.
1.2. How Are They Treated
Since this is a natural phenomenon and corrects by itself so it does not require any treatment modality. However, it the cyst is troublesome, dentist can place a small incision (under local anesthesia) to allow the tooth to come quickly. Any discoloration, swelling and foul smell in the region should be brought into the notice of your dentist immediately.
1.3. Differential Diagnosis
Not every gingival swelling around the erupting tooth is an eruption cyst. So you need to contact your dentist if the swelling is troublesome as it can be due to:
Peripheral giant cell granuloma
Peripheral ossifying fibroma
Peripheral odontogenic tumors
Though these eruptions are usually painless and resolve upon tooth eruption but any kind of prolonged discomfort should be brought into dentist’s notice.