Tooth extraction refers to removal of tooth from the socket. When an extraction has to be pain free then the right instruments have to be there. Extractions are recommended by the dentists for several reasons and one of the major ones is for tooth infection that is deep rooted. Tooth extraction may also be required for the braces treatment or may be required for giving dentures to the patient. In case of impacted infectious teeth also tooth extraction is required. There will be different instruments which will be used for tooth extraction. In case of simple tooth extraction, mainly forceps and elevators are used and in case of surgical tooth extraction, along with forceps and elevators, scalpels, dental drill, sutures are required.
The main instruments that a dentist needs in times of an extraction are the Forceps and Elevators.
Tooth extraction forceps
Tooth Extraction Forceps are primary instruments to remove the tooth from the socket. The main function of forceps is expansion of the bony socket by the wedge shaped beaks of the forceps and movement of tooth with the forceps. Forceps are also used to pull out the tooth from the socket.
Maxillary Extraction Forceps
Forceps look like tweezers and have a firm grip which allows the dentist to exert sufficient force. The forceps allow the tooth to be held firmly and yet the dentist will be able to move it back and forth before it is plugged out.
Mandibuar Extraction Forceps
The tooth needs to be pulled out from the roots and for that the forceps are just the rightly designed instruments. They can also maneuver themselves into any part of the mouth in the most effortless of ways. If the dentist wants to perform a non-surgical simple tooth extraction or closed or intraalveolar tooth extraction then they will certainly need forceps.
In case of teeth that are deeply entrenched and embedded in the gums then the use of the forceps is just not enough. In that case what is needed are Dental Elevator tools that need to be used along with the forceps. Dental Elevator tools can act as levers and these are put between the tissues and in between the teeth. Elevators are used for luxation of teeth. Elevators are frequently used to mobilize the teeth.
Elevator tools look just like tiny screwdrivers. They are of three different kinds of elevators. They are straight elevators, apexo elevators and cryers.
Cryer’s elevatorStraight Hockey stick and Apexo elevators
The main function of dental elevators is to luxate multirooted teeth prior to forceps application. They are used to luxate and remove the teeth which can’t be engaged by the beaks of the forceps like the impacted teeth, malposed teeth or badly carious teeth. Dental elevators can also be used to remove fractured root stumps or apical tooth tips.
Scalpels for incision in case of Surgical Tooth Extraction
In case of surgical tooth extraction which is also known as open tooth extraction, apart from dental elevators and forceps, instruments are required for giving incision and bone cutting. In case of surgical tooth extraction, tooth is damaged to such an extent that nothing is visible above the gums. For giving incision that is for making cut on the soft tissues, scalpel is used. Scalpel is used to cut directly through gum tissue down to the bone. Scalpel has 2 parts that are blade and blade handle. After giving the incision, flap is raised to expose the tooth.
Chisel and osteotomes for cutting or splitting bone in Surgical Tooth Extraction
Chisels are unibevelled instruments for cutting the bone and osteotomes are bibevelled instruments which split the bone. Chisels are used to remove chips of bone in case of surgical tooth extractions and to split the tooth in difficult tooth extractions.
It is made of steel, lead or wood and is similar to a hammer. It is used for giving controlled taps on the chisel or osteotome.
Dental drill and burs for splitting tooth and bone cutting
It is a quicker method of bone removal by drilling the bone at high speed. Burs are rotary instruments that cut the bone. They are made of either stainless steel or carbide. They are available in different lengths, shapes and sizes. They aid in bone removal or splitting the tooth during surgical removal of teeth. Hand piece and burs can also be used to round off the sharp margins after tooth extraction. Irrigation should be done during drilling with copious amount of saline solution. There should be as less damage to the alveolar bone during the surgical tooth extraction as possible.
Rongeur Forceps, Bone file, Bone cutter
Bone file and Rongeur Forceps
Rongeur Forceps are used to nibble sharp bony margins after simple or surgical tooth extraction. Rongeur forceps have curved handles and have spring action. Bone file as the name suggests is used to smoothen any bony margins present in the surgical field. Bone cutter is similar to Rongeur forceps and is used to trim sharp bony margins after tooth extraction.
Sutures or stitches after tooth extraction procedure
Stitches are given to approximate the margins. The two basic types of suture materials are resorbable suture material which the body is capable of breaking down easily and the non-resorbable sutures. Resorbable suture material includes gut, polyglycolic acid and copolymer of glycolic and lactic acid.
Non-resorbable suture material includes silk, nylon, polyester and polypropylene sutures. Non-resorbable sutures can be monofilamentous, multifilamentous or can be both.
Apart from sutures, needle holder, tissue holding forceps and suture cutting scissors are also used to suture the tissues. Needle holder is a straight instrument with short working tip. Tissue holding forceps can be plain or toothed and are used to hold the tissues during the process of dissection or during suturing. Suture cutting scissors are used for cutting the suture ends and they may be straight or curved and angulated or nonangulated.
Suction apparatus, Suction tubing and Suction tip
Suction apparatus, Suction tubing and suction tip are used to maintain a clear surgical field during surgical tooth extraction.